MRTG用了多年,也搞过一段RRDTool和Cacti做监控画图,但是一直都对SNMP的MIB库定义感到模棱两可,尤其那堆类似 . 的数字感到迷惑,这回收集了一些资料,好好整理了一下,自己感觉清晰了不少,把收集整理的资料做个笔记,也分享给朋友。

  简单网络管理协议(SNMP:Simple Network Management Protocol)是由互联网工程任务组(IETF:Internet Engineering Task Force )定义的一套网络管理协议。该协议基于简单网关监视协议(SGMP:Simple Gateway Monitor Protocol)。利用SNMP,一个管理工作站可以远程管理所有支持这种协议的网络设备,包括监视网络状态、修改网络设备配置、接收网络事件警告等。虽然SNMP开始是面向基于IP的网络管理,但作为一个工业标准也被成功用于电话网络管理。

1. SNMP基本原理




  版本识别符(version identifier):确保SNMP代理使用相同的协议,每个SNMP代理都直接抛弃与自己协议版本不同的数据报。

  团体名(Community Name):用于SNMP从代理对SNMP管理站进行认证;如果网络配置成要求验证时,SNMP从代理将对团体名和管理站的IP地址进行认证,如果失败,SNMP从代理将向管理站发送一个认证失败的Trap消息


2. 管理信息库MIB
IETF规定的管理信息库MIB(由中定义了可访问的网络设备及其属性,由对象识别符(OID:Object Identifier)唯一指定。MIB是一个树形结构,SNMP协议消息通过遍历MIB树形目录中的节点来访问网络中的设备。  
下图给出了NMS系统中SNMP可访问网络设备的对象识别树(OID:Object Identifier)结构。




3. SNMP的五种消息类型


  • Get-Request 、Get-Next-Request与Get-Response   
    {iso org(3) dod(6) internet(1) mgmt(2) mib(1) interfaces(2) ifNumber(2)}
    {iso org(3) dod(6) internet(1) mgmt(2) mib(1) interfaces(2) ifTable(2)}
  • Set-Request
    SNMP管理站用Set-Request 可以对网络设备进行远程配置(包括设备名、设备属性、删除设备或使某一个设备属性有效/无效等)。
  • Trap





  对象命名树的顶级对象有三个,即ISO、ITU-T和这两个组织的联合体。在ISO的下面有4个结点,其中的饿一个(标号3)是被标识的组织。在其下面有一个美国国防部(Department of Defense)的子树(标号是6),再下面就是Internet(标号是1)。在只讨论Internet中的对象时,可只画出Internet以下的子树(图中带阴影的虚线方框),并在Internet结点旁边标注上{}即可。 在Internet结点下面的第二个结点是mgmt(管理),标号是2。再下面是管理信息库,原先的结点名是mib。1991年定义了新的版本MIB-II,故结点名现改为mib-2,其标识为{},或{Internet(1) .2.1}。这种标识为对象标识符。
  最初的结点mib将其所管理的信息分为8个类别,见表1。现在de mib-2所包含的信息类别已超过40个。

  表1 最初的结点mib管理的信息类别




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